Why Are Nephrotic Syndrome Patients Prone to Thrombus
Thrombosis is a common complication of Nephrotic Syndrome. The incidence of thrombosis in adult nephrotic syndrome is 10%-40%, and in children nephrotic syndrome is 1.8%-5%. Why are Nephrotic Syndrome patients prone to thrombus? Read on to learn more information.
1. Injury of vascular endothelium
In patients with Nephrotic Syndrome, immune complexes and autoantibodies cause vascular endothelial injury or exposure of collagen after endothelial injury, which initiates endogenous and exogenous coagulation pathways. Some studies suggest that exogenous tissue factors play an important role in the formation of hypercoagulable state of Nephrotic Syndrome.
2. Disequilibrium of coagulation and fibrinolysis system
A large amount of proteinuria in patients with nephrotic syndrome leads to hypoproteinemia, which can promote the increase of synthetic fibrinogen and various coagulation factors in the liver, and the relative molecular weight of the above substances is large, which is not easy to be excreted from urine so as to increase the concentration in plasma; while anticoagulant factors (such as antithrombin III, protein C) and fibrinolytic enzymes, due to their small relative molecular weight, lose more in urine than in liver synthesis, leading to decreased plasma concentration.
3. Increased platelet count and hyperfunction
Thromboxane A2 is the main initiator of platelet activation and coagulation. Arachidonic acid is the precursor of thromboxane A2. It is released into cells in the form of prototype. When combined with serum protein, it can not participate in platelet aggregation and transform into thromboxane A2. Nephrotic syndrome patients lose a large amount of protein in urine, resulting in a decrease in plasma albumin concentration, a decrease in serum protein-binding arachidonic acid, and an increase in thrombin A2, thereby activating platelets and promoting thrombosis.
In nephrotic syndrome, the activity of lipoprotein lipase decreases, which leads to the obstacle of lipid clearance. At the same time, the activity of lysolipid acyltransferase increases. This enzyme can catalyze the acetylation of lysolipid into lecithin, increase the blood phospholipid and blood viscosity.
5. Blood concentration
The decrease of serum albumin, the decrease of plasma colloid osmotic pressure and the leakage of water from blood vessel to tissue gap lead to the decrease of effective circulating blood volume and blood viscosity.
Why are Nephrotic Syndrome patients prone to thrombus? Now you get the answer. For more information on Nephrotic Syndrome treatment, please leave a message below or contact online doctor.
***Please seek professional medical advise for the diagnosis or treatment of any ailment, disease or medical condition. This article is not intended to be a substitute for the advice of a licensed medical professional.***